Contrast-enhanced peripheral magnetic resonance angiography using time-resolved vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction

J Magn Reson Imaging. 2004 Nov;20(5):894-900. doi: 10.1002/jmri.20189.


Purpose: To investigate the application of time-resolved vastly undersampled isotropic projection reconstruction (VIPR) in contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography of the distal extremity (single station), and peripheral run-off vasculature in the abdomen, thigh, and calf (three stations).

Materials and methods: Time-resolved distal extremity imaging was performed using VIPR sequence through the comparison of two acquisition matrix sizes: 256 with TR/TE=3.7/1.4 msec and 320 with TR/TE=4.5/1.8 msec under the same scan time of two minutes. VIPR acquisition was combined with a bolus-chase technique to image the peripheral run-off vasculature. The time-resolved images were reconstructed using a revised sliding window reconstruction filter whose temporal aperture remained narrow for low spatial frequencies and increased quadratically to include all the projection data for high spatial frequencies.

Results: The new temporal filter significantly suppressed the undersampling streak artifacts and venous contamination, while maintaining a high temporal resolution. Both high spatial resolution (ranging from 1.56 x 1.56 x 1.56 mm to 1.25 x 1.25 x 1.25 mm) and high temporal resolution (three seconds per frame) distal extremity images and peripheral run-off images were generated using time-resolved VIPR acquisition, which provides isotropic spatial resolution and isotropic coverage.

Conclusion: Time-resolved VIPR acquisition was demonstrated to be well suited for distal extremity imaging by providing isotropic spatial resolution, isotropic coverage, and high temporal resolution. The combination of time-resolved VIPR and bolus chase technique provided a novel approach for peripheral run-off examinations.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Abdomen / blood supply
  • Algorithms
  • Artifacts
  • Contrast Media / administration & dosage*
  • Gadolinium DTPA*
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement / methods*
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods
  • Leg / blood supply
  • Lower Extremity / anatomy & histology
  • Lower Extremity / pathology
  • Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods*
  • Reference Values
  • Thigh / blood supply
  • Time Factors


  • Contrast Media
  • gadodiamide
  • Gadolinium DTPA