An in vivo study of the plaque control efficacy of Persica: a commercially available herbal mouthwash containing extracts of Salvadora persica

Int Dent J. 2004 Oct;54(5):279-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1875-595x.2004.tb00294.x.


Aim: This study compared the oral health efficacy of Persica mouthwash (containing an extract of Salvadora persica) with that of a placebo.

Design: In a double-blind, cross-over trial, participants were randomly allocated to use either the Persica mouthwash or a placebo for a three-week period. Plaque accumulation, gingival bleeding and the salivary concentrations of mutans streptococci (MS) were measured before and immediately following the experimental period. After an eight-week 'washout' period, the study was repeated with participants using the alternative mouthwash.

Participants: Twenty-eight healthy students (aged between 18 and 42 years) volunteered to take part in this investigation.

Results: Compared with the pre-treatment values, both placebo and experimental groups demonstrated significantly reduced gingival bleeding (p < 0.01). Plaque scores were not significantly reduced following use of either Persica or the placebo. However, the use of Persica, but not the placebo, resulted in significant reduction in the carriage of MS (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Use of Persica mouthwash resulted in improved gingival health and lower carriage rate of cariogenic bacteria when compared with the pre-treatment values. The placebo (vehicle control) also improved gingival health significantly. Neither the Persica nor the placebo reduced the accumulation of dental plaque.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Dental Plaque / prevention & control*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Gingivitis / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mouthwashes / pharmacology
  • Mouthwashes / therapeutic use*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Periodontal Index
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Pilot Projects
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Saliva / microbiology
  • Salvadoraceae*
  • Streptococcus mutans / drug effects
  • Streptococcus mutans / isolation & purification


  • Mouthwashes
  • Plant Extracts