Prevention and treatment of alveolar ridge deformities aim at preserving and/or reconstructing soft and hard tissues of the edentulous ridge. Different surgical techniques may be used to prevent ridge collapse before tooth extraction or to reconstruct lost ridge anatomy before tooth replacement. In cases of mild or moderate ridge defects, soft tissue augmentation is generally sufficient to repair the deformity. On the other hand, hard tissue augmentation should be selected primarily when implant therapy is scheduled. In cases of severe ridge defects, a staged or a combined approach may be appropriate. This article reviews the various approaches for the prevention and treatment of ridge deformities.