A heat-stable protein has been purified from rat liver mitochondria which inhibits the ATP hydrolytic activity of both the soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial F1-ATPase. The overall purification is about 2400-fold with the major purification step consisting of Sephadex "affinity" chromatography. The purified rat liver inhibitor is homogeneous as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular weight of 12,300. Amino acid analysis reveals a high content of glutamic acid, lysine, and arginine and the absence of cysteine, proline and methionine. Whether tested with the rat liver or bovine heart ATPase, the liver inhibitor is equally as potent and specific as the heart inhibitor preparation of Pullman and Monroy (Pullman, M.E., and Monroy, G.C. (1963) J. Biol. Chem. 238, 3762-3769). Although the results presented show that the rat liver ATPase inhibitor resembles closely the ATPase inhibitors from other tissues with respect to specific activity and reaction specificity, it is important to note that the rat liver inhibitor is almost 2000 daltons larger than the bovine heart inhibitor, about 5000 daltons larger than ATPase inhibitors of yeast, and contains significantly more lysine residues than both the bovine heart and yeast inhibitors.