The members of the family Arteriviridae, genus Arterivirus, include equine arteritis virus (EAV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) of mice, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus (SHFV). PRRSV is the newest member of the family (first isolated in North America and Europe in the early 1990s), whereas the other three viruses were recognized earlier (EAV in 1953, LDV in 1960, and SHFV in 1964). Although arterivirus infections are strictly species-specific, the causative agents share many biological and molecular properties, including their virion morphology, replication strategy, unique properties of their structural proteins, and their ability to establish distinctive persistent infections in their natural hosts. The arteriviruses are each antigenically distinct and cause different disease syndromes in their natural hosts. Similarly, the mechanism(s) responsible for the prolonged and/or persistent infections that characterize infections with each arterivirus in their natural hosts are remarkably different. The objective of this review is to compare and contrast the immune response to EAV with that to the other three arteriviruses, and emphasize the potential relevance of apparent similarities and differences in the neutralization characteristics of each virus.