Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether hyaline membrane disease is increased in newborn infants who are born to women with preeclampsia compared with control subjects.
Study design: This was a historic cohort study of deliveries between 24 and 37 weeks of gestation at the Medical University of South Carolina from 1996 through 2002. Singleton infants who were born to women with preeclampsia were compared with nonpreeclamptic control subjects. The incidence of hyaline membrane disease was compared by chi 2 analysis and Fisher exact test, with significance at a probability value of <.05. Logistic regression analysis was performed to address potential confounders.
Results: There were 814 women with preeclampsia and 3021 control subjects. When we controlled for confounding factors, there was a significant increase in the incidence of hyaline membrane disease in the preeclamptic group overall (odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.03-1.78). The risk was more pronounced in neonates who were born at 32 weeks of gestation (odds ratio, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.28-2.91).
Conclusion: The risk of hyaline membrane disease in neonates at < 32 weeks of gestation is increased in patients with preeclampsia. This supports the contention that fetal lung maturity is not accelerated in preeclampsia.