Of the different modalities to induce local hyperthermia, focused ultrasound is the only noninvasive technology available at the moment. In addition to the 3D localization of the target region, it has been shown that MRI can provide real-time thermometry and allows online, automatic control of temperature evolution of the focal point. Treatment of a large tissue volume (as compared to the focal spot size, i.e., the ultrasound wavelength) can be achieved rapidly by moving the focal point along an inside-out spiral trajectory. It has been shown previously that under linear conditions of energy deposition versus temperature, the spatial profile of the temperature within a large area can be controlled. In this study, a proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) spatial-and-temporal controller is described for the control of the temperature evolution within the target region under more variable conditions. The aim was to reach a predefined temperature profile after a few successive trajectories. Heat conduction in tissue is exploited to obtain a uniform temperature increase in a volume using discrete sonications without any waiting time. Input data sets consisted of 3D temperature maps provided online by a MR scanner. For each new trajectory, the controller recalculates the number of sonications per surface unit (spatial density of points describing the trajectory) and the applied power. Its performance was tested ex vivo and in vivo. Diameters of the target region ranged from 9 mm to 19 mm. Targeted temperature increase ranged from +8 degrees C to +18 degrees C. Spatiotemporal temperature control showed good stability and fast convergence, for both circular and elliptic ROIs.
(c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.