Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of visual loss despite successful congenital cataract surgery. The overall incidence does not appear to have decreased with modern microsurgical techniques. The onset of glaucoma may be acute or insidious and notoriously refractory to treatment. Angle closure glaucoma may occur in the early postoperative period; but the most common type of glaucoma to develop after congenital cataract surgery is open angle glaucoma. Several risk factors have been identified and both chemical and mechanical theories have been proposed for its pathogenesis. Unlike children with congenital glaucoma, those with paediatric glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery are usually asymptomatic despite high intraocular pressure. They may require regular evaluation under anaesthesia, whenever there are any suspicious findings. Unlike congenital glaucoma, the first line of treatment for glaucoma in aphakia/pseudophakia may be medical. Traditional trabeculectomy in paediatric glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery has met with limited success. The addition of antimetabolites to trabeculectomy is known to inhibit fibrosis and enhance the success, but carries the lifelong risk of bleb-related endophthalmitis. Drainage implant surgery is a viable option to achieve longterm intraocular pressure control in this refractory group of patients. Cycloablative procedures may provide temporising treatment and should be reserved for patients with low visual potential. Diagnosis of glaucoma following congenital cataract surgery requires lifelong surveillance and continuous assessment of the problem. Further research is needed to understand the pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of this sight-threatening complication following successful cataract surgery in children.