We investigated the prevalence of wheeze, self-reported asthma, and asthma care via four cross-sectional surveys among adults and children (5-15 years) in urban and rural populations from Tanzania and Cameroon. Age-standardized prevalence of current wheeze (in the previous year) was 2.2% to 5.0% in adults and 1.9% to 5.2% in children in Tanzania, and 1.3% to 2.5% (adults) and 0.8% to 5.4% (children) in Cameroon. There were no consistent patterns of urban:rural prevalence. Peak flow rates varied with age, peaking at 25-34 years, and were higher in urban areas (age adjusted difference 22-70 L/min) and in the Tanzania populations. Awareness (83%-86% versus 52%-58%) and treatment (43%-71% versus 30%-44%) of asthma was higher among those with current wheeze in rural areas. Use of inhaled drugs, particularly steroids, was rare. Diagnosis by traditional healers (15%) and use of traditional remedies (62% of those recalling any treatment) were common only among self-reported asthmatic patients in rural Cameroon. Asthma is an importantclinical condition in sub-Saharan Africa. There were major gaps in clinical care, particularly in urban areas. Sustainable methods for delivering accessible and effective asthma care in sub-Saharan Africa are required.