A high proportion of polymorphisms in the promoters of brain expressed genes influences transcriptional activity

Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Nov 5;1690(3):238-49. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2004.06.023.


There is increasing interest in the possibility that polymorphisms affecting gene expression are responsible for a significant proportion of heritable human phenotypic variation, including human disease. We have sought to determine if polymorphisms in the promoters of brain expressed genes are commonly functional. We screened for polymorphism 56 genes previously reported to be differentially expressed in the brains of schizophrenics [Y. Hakak, J.R. Walker, C. Li, W.H. Wong, K.L. Davis, J.D. Buxbaum, V. Haroutunian, A.A. Fienberg, Genome-wide expression analysis reveals dysregulation of myelination-related genes in chronic schizophrenia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 98 (2001) 4746-4751.]. We found 60 variants distributed across 31 of the genes. A total of 77 haplotypes representing 28 different putative promoters were analyzed in a reporter gene assay in two cell lines. Of a total of 54 sequence variants represented in the haplotypes, 12 (or around 22%) were functional according to a highly conservative definition. These were found in the promoters of eight genes: NPY, PCSK1, NEFL, KIAA0513, LMO4, HSPA1B, TF and MDH1. We therefore estimate that around 20-25% of promoter polymorphisms in brain expressed genes are functional, and this is likely to be an underestimate. Our data therefore provide for the first time empirical evidence that promoter element polymorphisms, at least in brain expressed genes, should be afforded a high priority for molecular genetic studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Genes, Reporter / genetics
  • Haplotypes / genetics
  • Humans
  • Internet
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Transcription, Genetic / genetics*