Regulation and Role of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta in Immune Tolerance Induction and Inflammation

Curr Opin Immunol. 2004 Dec;16(6):709-16. doi: 10.1016/j.coi.2004.09.008.


Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is known to mediate pleiotropic functions both inside and outside the immune system. Recent progress in this field underlines the role of TGF-beta in regulatory T (Treg) cells, where it participates in both suppression and differentiation. In addition, recent information highlights the role of TGF-beta in repair responses that lead to matrix deposition and tissue remodelling. Many chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, profit from the suppression of specific immune responses by TGF-beta; however, TGF-beta-mediated tissue remodelling can be a serious complication in such diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance / immunology
  • Immune Tolerance / physiology*
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / metabolism*
  • Inhibin-beta Subunits / metabolism
  • T-Lymphocytes / cytology
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism*


  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • inhibin beta A subunit
  • Inhibin-beta Subunits