There is limited scientific evidence that women have a higher frequency and incidence of sickness absence due to psychiatric diagnoses. Because of conflicting findings, there is insufficient evidence on gender differences in the duration of sickness absence. Because of conflicting findings, there is also insufficient evidence on the association between age and sickness absence with psychiatric diagnoses. There is insufficient evidence on the association of sickness absence due to psychiatric diagnoses with work-related factors, factors related to family and social networks outside of the job, and psychosocial factors in childhood and adolescence since none of the individual factors were investigated in more than a single study. The results were conflicting (insufficient evidence) in five studies that investigated whether individuals with psychiatric disorders were at greater risk for sickness absence and disability pension, irrespective of the diagnosis on the sickness certificate. The four studies that used alcohol diagnoses to identify alcohol problems found increased sickness absence irrespective of the diagnosis on the certificate (expressed as more sick-leave days or an increased risk for prolonged sickness absence in individuals with alcohol problems). Furthermore, two of the studies found an increased risk for disability pension in women diagnosed with alcohol problems. There is insufficient evidence because of too few studies. The results are conflicting with regard to the association between high alcohol consumption and sickness absence, irrespective of the diagnosis on the certificate (insufficient evidence).