Objectives: To assess safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and hemodynamic effects of oral CF 101, an A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonist, in healthy men.
Methods: One single and 1 repeated dose, parallel-group, ascending dose, double-blind and placebo-controlled study in normal volunteers. In the single dose study, n = 15 subjects received 1, 5 or 10 mg oral CF101; in each group 1 subject received placebo, the remainder active CF101. In the repeat-dose study, n = 28 subjects received repeated 12-hourly oral doses of CF 101 (2, 3, 4 or 5 mg) for 7 days, in each group 2 subjects received placebo, the remainder active CF101. TEST MATERIALS: Single-dose study: CF101 in 30% Cremophor RH40. Multiple-dose sudy: CF101 in 0.5% methylcellulose suspension. Both studies: the corresponding vehicles were used as placebos. Galenicals were prepared remotely from the clinical study site to ensure double-blind nature of the study. RESULTS TOLERABILITY: Single doses up to 5 mg CF101 were safe and well-tolerated. However, the single dose of 10 mg CF101 was associated with flushing, tachycardia, nausea and vomiting, which were viewed as dose-limiting in normal volunteers. Single doses of CF101 (as well as the first of the multiple doses) were associated with increases in heart rate (8 - 24 beats/min after 5 mg and 18 - 55 beats/min after 10 mg). Multiple doses up to 4 mg 12-hourly for 7 days were safe and well-tolerated. However, the 5 mg multiple-dose group reported headache, drowsiness, hot flushes and dizziness on standing; this declined with dosing duration and was not dose-limiting in this study. Adverse events were commonest near t(max). RESULTS PHARMACOKINETICS: For oral CF101, the t(max) was always 1 - 2 h post-dose and t 1/2 about 9 h, in both the single- and multiple-dose studies. For a single 5 mg dose (mean +/- SD) C(max) = 81.6 +/- 23.6 ng/ml in the single dose study, and 63.6 +/- 22.0 ng/ml after the first of the multiple doses; AUC if was 904.0 +/- 221.9 ng.h/ml and 596.1 +/- 196.6 ng.h/ml for the 2 studies, respectively. After 7 days of multiple dosing there was little change, and AUC(0-24h) = 601.0 +/- 163.6 ng.h/ml. These pharmacokinetic parameters were linearly proportional to dose in the other treatment groups. RESULTS PHARMACODYNAMICS: Increases in heart rate were related to plasma concentration and evident only in the upper range of concentrations observed. There were no changes on ECG monitoring beyond sinus tachycardia, and, in particular, no evidence of PR prolongation in any subject (n = 43). In comparison with single doses, this response was almost absent after 7 days of dosing. Leucocytosis (increases up to about 1.5 x 10(9)/l after 5 and 10 mg) was similarly transient and reversible after multiple dosing.
Conclusions: Single oral doses up to 5 mg CF101 and repeated doses up to 4 mg 12-hourly for 7 days were safe and well-tolerated. Multiple-dose CF101 pharmacokinetics were unchanged and predictable from single-dose estimates, and were linearly proportional to dose. Increases in heart rate and neutrophil count were reversible during multiple dosing and were not dose-limiting in the repeat dose study. CF101 warrants further study for its efficacy in treating human disease.