Up to 20% of parents report a problem with infant crying or irritability in the first 3 months of life. Crying usually peaks at 6 weeks and abates by 12-16 weeks. For most irritable infants, there is no underlying medical cause. In a minority, the cause is cow's milk and other food allergy. Only if frequent vomiting (about five times a day) occurs is gastro-oesophageal reflux a likely cause. It is important to assess the mother-infant relationship and maternal fatigue, anxiety and depression. Management of excessive crying includes: explaining babies' normal crying and sleeping patterns; helping parents help their baby deal with discomfort and distress through a baby-centred approach; helping parents recognise when their baby is tired and apply a consistent approach to settling their baby; encouraging parents to accept help from friends and family, and to simplify household tasks. If they are unable to manage their baby's crying, admission to a parenting centre (day stay or overnight stay) or local hospital should be arranged.