Preventing microalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes

N Engl J Med. 2004 Nov 4;351(19):1941-51. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa042167. Epub 2004 Oct 31.


Background: The multicenter double-blind, randomized Bergamo Nephrologic Diabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT) was designed to assess whether angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and non-dihydropyridine calcium-channel blockers, alone or in combination, prevent microalbuminuria in subjects with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and normal urinary albumin excretion.

Methods: We studied 1204 subjects, who were randomly assigned to receive at least three years of treatment with trandolapril (at a dose of 2 mg per day) plus verapamil (sustained-release formulation, 180 mg per day), trandolapril alone (2 mg per day), verapamil alone (sustained-release formulation, 240 mg per day), or placebo. The target blood pressure was 120/80 mm Hg. The primary end point was the development of persistent microalbuminuria (overnight albumin excretion, > or =20 microg per minute at two consecutive visits).

Results: The primary outcome was reached in 5.7 percent of the subjects receiving trandolapril plus verapamil, 6.0 percent of the subjects receiving trandolapril, 11.9 percent of the subjects receiving verapamil, and 10.0 percent of control subjects receiving placebo. The estimated acceleration factor (which quantifies the effect of one treatment relative to another in accelerating or slowing disease progression) adjusted for predefined baseline characteristics was 0.39 for the comparison between verapamil plus trandolapril and placebo (P=0.01), 0.47 for the comparison between trandolapril and placebo (P=0.01), and 0.83 for the comparison between verapamil and placebo (P=0.54). Trandolapril plus verapamil and trandolapril alone delayed the onset of microalbuminuria by factors of 2.6 and 2.1, respectively. Serious adverse events were similar in all treatment groups.

Conclusions: In subjects with type 2 diabetes and hypertension but with normoalbuminuria, the use of trandolapril plus verapamil and trandolapril alone decreased the incidence of microalbuminuria to a similar extent. The effect of verapamil alone was similar to that of placebo.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / prevention & control*
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy
  • Disease Progression
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Indoles / therapeutic use*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Verapamil / therapeutic use*


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Indoles
  • trandolapril
  • Verapamil