Most of the effects of estrogens are mediated by estrogen receptors. Vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells express estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in both genders. A long genotype group of a common thymine-adenine (TA) dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in the regulatory region of this gene has previously been related to coronary artery disease. The present study examined whether coronary blood flow is affected by this genotype. A total of 49 healthy men were genotyped by PCR and divided into three groups according to median number of the ESR1 promoter TA repeat (=19), i.e., in the short allele genotype group both alleles were of fewer than 19 repeats whereas in the long allele group both alleles were 19 repeats or more. The intermediate group comprised men who had one short and one long allele. Myocardial blood flow was measured by positron emission tomography using [(15)O]water, performed at rest and during adenosine stimulation. Men with long alleles had lower adenosine-stimulated coronary flow than those with short alleles and those with one short and one long allele. Our results suggest that adenosine-stimulated myocardial perfusion is lower in subjects with ESR1 long alleles than the other TA repeat genotypes.