Cardiovascular events are among the most frequent causes for long-term morbidity and mortality in children after renal transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of post-transplant changes in arterial hypertension, as assessed by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM), on myocardial architecture, as assessed by echocardiography. In a retrospective chart review analysis, 39 children were identified in whom 24-h ABPM and echocardiography had been assessed within a 3-month interval after a mean of 4 years post transplantation; 20 repeated pairs of measurements after a mean of 2 years of follow-up were available to analyze the longitudinal effects of post-transplant changes of blood pressure control on left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Arterial hypertension (59%) and left ventricular hypertrophy (50%) were highly prevalent in children after renal transplantation. Renal allograft function and number of antihypertensive medications, but not ABPM variables, were correlated with LVMI at the initial observation. However, at repeat assessment, a significant correlation between ABPM and LVMI was found. In the longitudinal assessment, left ventricular remodeling was dependent on change of dosage of cyclosporine and interval changes of blood pressure levels. Hence, control of blood pressure correlates with changes of LVMI in children with renal allografts. These results clearly underline the importance of blood pressure control for the maintenance of the myocardial architecture.