An intraoperative fluorescent imaging system in organ transplantation

Transplant Proc. 2004 Sep;36(7):2188-90. doi: 10.1016/j.transproceed.2004.09.001.


An intraoperative fluorescent imaging system (SPY system; Novadaq Technologies, Inc, Concord, Ontario, Canada) that enables vascular surgeons to confirm the location and states of the reconstructed vessels during surgery, has been developed in the field of open heart surgery. In this paper, we evaluated the usefulness of the SPY system in kidney and liver transplantation.

Patients and methods: SPY system visualizes arteries and grafts intraoperatively, using indocyanine green (ICG) with a portable imaging device. The modality was evaluated in 15 patients undergoing kidney (n = 13) or liver (n = 2) transplantation with respect to safety, feasibility of use, and image quality. Images were generated and acquired with a portable laser diode/infrared camera device after injection of 10 mL of ICG (2.5 mg/mL) intravenously.

Result: There was no complication associated with ICG injection or the imaging device. The SPY system was easily used during transplant surgery and adequately demonstrated reconstructed arteries and patency in all patients.

Conclusion: The intraoperative imaging system enables the surgeon to view, record, and replay real-time images of the reconstructed arteries during surgery. The system may provide useful information during surgery such as solid organ transplantation that requires vascular reconstruction.

MeSH terms

  • Fluorescein Angiography / instrumentation
  • Fluorescein Angiography / methods
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Humans
  • Kidney Transplantation / methods*
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / instrumentation
  • Monitoring, Intraoperative / methods*
  • Renal Artery / pathology*


  • Fluorescent Dyes