Antineoplastic agents induce oxidative stress in biological systems. During cancer chemotherapy, oxidative stress-induced lipid peroxidation generates numerous electrophilic aldehydes that can attack many cellular targets. These products of oxidative stress can slow cell cycle progression of cancer cells and cause cell cycle checkpoint arrest, effects that may interfere with the ability of anticancer drugs to kill cancer cells. The aldehydes may also inhibit drug-induced apoptosis (programmed cell death) by inactivating death receptors and inhibiting caspase activity. These effects would also diminish the efficacy of the treatment. The use of anti-oxidants during chemotherapy may enhance therapy by reducing the generation of oxidative stress-induced aldehydes.