Association between chronic heart failure and inhaled beta-2-adrenoceptor agonists

Am Heart J. 2004 Nov;148(5):915-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.03.048.


Background: Recent reports suggest an association between beta-agonists and the risk of incident chronic heart failure (CHF). We sought to examine the association between inhaled beta-agonists and risk of incident and nonincident heart failure.

Methods: We performed a nested case-control study within the Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Case subjects were defined as having had a hospitalization with a primary discharge diagnosis of CHF. Controls were randomly selected from the ACQUIP cohort. The exposure was the number of beta-agonist canisters filled in the 90 days before an index date.

Results: After adjusting for potentially confounding factors, there appeared to be no association between the use of inhaled beta-agonists and the risk of heart failure (1-2 canisters per month, OR 1.3 [95% CI 0.9, 1.8], > or =3 canisters per month, 1.1 [95% CI 0.8, 1.6]). However, among the cohort that had a history of CHF, there appeared to be a dose-response association between the number of inhaled beta-agonists and the risk of hospitalization for chronic heart failure (1-2 canisters per month, adjusted OR 1.8 [95% CI 1.1, 3.0], > or =3 canisters per month, adjusted OR 2.1 [95% CI 1.2, 3.8]).

Conclusion: beta-Agonists did not appear to be associated with incident heart failure but were associated with risk of CHF hospitalization among those subjects with a previous CHF diagnosis. Although a causal relationship cannot be inferred from these findings, further research is warranted to determine the safety and effectiveness of inhaled beta-agonists for patients with CHF.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Adrenergic beta-Agonists / adverse effects*
  • Aged
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Heart Failure / chemically induced*
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors


  • Adrenergic beta-Agonists