Homologous recombination (HR) serves a dual role in providing genetic flexibility and in maintaining genome integrity. Little is known about the regulation of HR and other repair pathways in the context of chromatin. We report on a mutant affected in the expression of the Arabidopsis INO80 ortholog of the SWI/SNF ATPase family, which shows a reduction of the HR frequency to 15% of that in wild-type plants. In contrast, sensitivity to genotoxic agents and efficiency of T-DNA integration remain unaffected, suggesting that INO80 is a positive regulator of HR, while not affecting other repair pathways. So far, INO80 function has only been reported in a lower eukaryote. Profiling studies on three ino80 allelic mutants show that INO80 regulates nearly 100 Arabidopsis genes. However, the transcriptional regulation of repair-related genes is unaffected in the mutant. This suggests a dual role for INO80 in transcription and DNA repair by HR.