Objective: To determine the incidence and risk factors for post-ICU mortality in patients with infection.
Design and setting: International observational cohort study including 28 ICUs in eight countries.
Patients: All 1,872 patients discharged alive from the ICU over a 1-year period were screened for infection at ICU admission and daily throughout the ICU stay. Outcomes at ICU and hospital discharge were recorded.
Measurements and results: Post-ICU death occurred in 195 (10.4%) patients and was associated in the multivariable analysis with age, chronic respiratory failure, immunosuppression, cirrhosis, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II on the first day with infection, and LOD score at ICU discharge. Post-ICU death was more common among medical patients and patients with hospital-acquired infection or microbiologically documented infection and was less common in patients with pneumonia.
Conclusions: Post-ICU death in patients with infection was within previously reported ranges in overall ICU populations. The main risk factors were patient and infection characteristics, severity at ICU admission, and persistent organ dysfunction at ICU discharge. Further interventions such as further ICU management, discharge to a step-down unit, or follow-up by intensivists on the ward should be evaluated in patients with a high risk of post-ICU mortality.