To date, approximately 200 different mutations in the MECP2 gene have been identified. We analyzed the entire coding sequence of the MECP2 gene and the X-chromosome inactivation pattern in 42 sporadic cases of Rett syndrome. Of the 42 patients, 30 had pathogenic mutations, including 14 different mutations: 9 missense mutations, 4 nonsense mutations, and 1 frameshift mutation. One was a novel mutation (S134P). There was a tendency for patients who had a nonsense mutation in the transcriptional repression domain region to show earlier onset of regression and more severe language retardation than patients with a mutation in the methyl-CpG binding domain region. However, the parameters of clinical severity were variable among patients with the same type of mutation, depending on the pattern of X-chromosome inactivation. This study suggests that the X-chromosome inactivation pattern can modify the phenotype of Rett syndrome, which is primarily determined by the type and site of MECP2 gene mutation.