Oxidative stress may contribute to the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We therefore examined prospectively whether individuals who regularly use supplements of the antioxidant vitamins E and C have a lower risk of ALS than nonusers. The study population comprised 957,740 individuals 30 years of age or older participating in the American Cancer Society's Cancer Prevention Study II. Information on vitamin use was collected at time of recruitment in 1982; participants then were followed up for ALS deaths from 1989 through 1998 via linkage with the National Death Index. During the follow-up, we documented 525 deaths from ALS. Regular use of vitamin E supplements was associated with a lower risk of dying of ALS. The age- and smoking-adjusted relative risk was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69-1.41) among occasional users, 0.59 (95% CI, 0.36-0.96) in regular users for less than 10 years, and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16-0.92) in regular users for 10 years or more as compared with nonusers of vitamin E (p for trend = 0.004). In contrast, no significant associations were found for use of vitamin C or multivitamins. These results suggest that vitamin E supplementation could have a role in ALS prevention.