Establishment of a near-standard two-dimensional human urine proteomic map

Proteomics. 2004 Nov;4(11):3485-97. doi: 10.1002/pmic.200401018.


A proteomic map for human urine on two-dimensional (2-D) gels has been developed. Initial studies demonstrated that the urine proteins prepared by conventional methods showed interference and poor reproducibility in 2-D electrophoresis (2-DE). To address this issue, urine samples were dialyzed to remove any interfering molecules. The dialysis of urine proteins and the concentration by lyophilization without fractionation significantly improved the reproducibility and resolution and likely represents the total urine proteins on a 2-D gel. In addition, removing albumin from urine using Affi-Gel Blue helped to identify the low-abundant proteins. Using the developed method, we prepared proteins from urine collected from healthy females and males. The large inter- and intra-subject variation in protein profiles on 2-D gels made it difficult to establish a normal human urine proteomic 2-D map. To resolve this problem, urinary proteins were prepared from the pooled urine collected from 20 healthy females and males, respectively. The established male and female urine proteomes separated on 2-D gels were almost identical except for some potential sex-dependent protein spots. We have annotated 113 different proteins on the 2-D gel by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF). We propose that the established total urine proteome can be used for 2-DE analysis, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and identification of novel disease-specific biomarkers.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Albumins / chemistry
  • Benzene / metabolism
  • Blotting, Western
  • Dialysis
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional
  • Humans
  • Peptide Mapping
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Proteins / metabolism
  • Proteinuria / metabolism*
  • Proteomics*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization


  • Albumins
  • Proteins
  • Benzene