Comparison of skeletal and dental morphology in asymptomatic volunteers and symptomatic patients with bilateral disk displacement without reduction

Angle Orthod. 2004 Oct;74(5):684-90. doi: 10.1043/0003-3219(2004)074<0684:COSADM>2.0.CO;2.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bilateral disk displacement without reduction (BDDN) on the skeletal and dental pattern of affected individuals. There were 59 symptomatic female patients and 46 asymptomatic normal female volunteers. All study participants had bilateral high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans in the sagittal (closed and open) and coronal (closed) planes to evaluate the temporomandibular joints. Linear and angular cephalometric measurements were taken to evaluate the skeletal, denture base, and dental characteristics of the two groups. A smaller cranial base length (Ba-Na) was found in the symptomatic group. The facial plane angle was smaller, and the angle of convexity was larger because of the retropositioned mandible. The lower denture base was also retruded as shown by the smaller SNB angle. The BDDN group exhibited a larger overjet. The mandibular plane angle was steeper, the Y-axis was more vertical (S-Gn to FH), the posterior ramal height (Ar-Go) was shorter, and the angle between the mandibular and the palatal plane (PP to MP angle) was increased in the symptomatic group. No significant dental differences were found. This study showed that alterations in skeletal morphology might be associated with BDDN. This study suggests that subjects with BDDN may manifest altered craniofacial morphology. The clinician should be aware of that possibility, especially for the growing patients and the surgical candidates.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cephalometry
  • Dental Arch / pathology
  • Facial Bones / pathology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Joint Dislocations / pathology*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Mandible / pathology
  • Maxilla / pathology
  • Palate / pathology
  • Skull Base / pathology
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disc / pathology*
  • Temporomandibular Joint Disorders / pathology*
  • Tooth / pathology*
  • Vertical Dimension