Bleaching of chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) using environmentally friendly chemicals

J Environ Biol. 2004 Apr;25(2):141-5.


Increasing environmental restrictions require a reduction in the use of chlorine-containing bleaching agents mainly chlorine gas. There are several approaches to this goal, including changes in the cooking process and the influent treatment. The aim of this study is to improve the physical and optical properties of chemithermomechanical pulp (CTMP) which has low brightness and strong tendency towards aging in chlorine-free bleaching sequences. For this reason, initially 7 different sets of single stage hydrogen peroxide bleaching operations were performed. After the analysis of the data obtained, the optimum bleaching conditions were as: H2O2 ratio on oven dry (o.d) raw material: 2%, NaOH ratio (on o.d raw material): 1.5%, MgSO4 ratio (on o.d raw material) : 0.5%, Na2SiO3 ratio (on o.d raw material) : 3%, EDTA ratio (on o.d raw material) : 0.5%, reaction time: 60 minutes, reaction temperature: 70 degrees C and concentration: 16%. Then, 11 different sets of two and multistage H2O2 (P), NaBH4 (B), and Na2S2O4 (S) bleaching operations were carried out. Optimum bleaching conditions were found in bleaching of BPSP with 4 stage sequences. As a result, CTMP brightness was observed to increase from 47% to 81.37% elrepho while yellowness of bleached pulps decreased from 321 per thousand to 164.01 per thousand elrepho.

MeSH terms

  • Chelating Agents / analysis
  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Chlorine Compounds / analysis*
  • Edetic Acid / analysis
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / chemistry
  • Industrial Waste
  • Optics and Photonics
  • Oxidants / chemistry
  • Refuse Disposal / methods*
  • Temperature
  • Water Pollution / prevention & control


  • Chelating Agents
  • Chlorine Compounds
  • Industrial Waste
  • Oxidants
  • Edetic Acid
  • Hydrogen Peroxide