Respiratory manifestations in HIV-infected children pre- and post-HAART in Abidjan, the Ivory Coast

Paediatr Respir Rev. 2004 Dec;5(4):311-5. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2004.07.008.


Among children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), respiratory diseases are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality. This review describes respiratory manifestations of paediatric HIV infection before and after the beginning of HAART in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. In an observational cohort, HIV infected children had quarterly clinical visits and a day-clinic available all week for ill children. CD4 and viral load were measured at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. All children with a CD4 percentage below 25% were prescribed daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Ninety-eight children (of a total of 282) were recruited before HAART and treated during the follow-up, there were 56 boys and 42 girls, with a mean age of 6.2 years at inclusion. The mean percentage of CD4 before HAART was 8.7%. Twelve children had a history of pulmonary tuberculosis and five were on antituberculosis treatment at inclusion. Fifty-one per cent presented with abnormalities on chest X-ray at inclusion. Before initiation of HAART, respiratory manifestations represented 32.4% of morbidity events and the incidence for 100 child/months was 9.29 for URTI, 15.2 for bronchitis, 6.07 for LRTI, 0.71 for tuberculosis and 0.36 for Pneumocystis carinii. After the initiation of HAART, respiratory manifestations represented 40.9% of all morbidity events and the incidence for 100 child/months was 5.35 for URTI, 9.48 for bronchitis, 2.17 for LRTI and 0.16 for tuberculosis. During HAART treatment, the incidence of respiratory infections decreased dramatically compared to before the antiretroviral treatment. However, respiratory events still represented 40% of all events occurring following the start of HAART therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Respiratory Tract Diseases / etiology*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination / therapeutic use


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination