Effects of lovastatin and pravastatin on amyloid processing and inflammatory response in TgCRND8 brain

Neurochem Res. 2004 Oct;29(10):1897-911. doi: 10.1023/b:nere.0000042217.90204.8d.


Previous studies suggest that treatment with statins reduce beta amyloid (Abeta) deposition in brains of mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may reduce the prevalence of AD in humans. Since lipophilicity influences the biological efficacy of statins, we compared the effects of lovastatin, a lipophilic statin, to effects of the hydrophilic pravastatin on amyloid processing and inflammatory responses in brain. Three-month old TgCRND8 mice expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (mHuAPP) were treated daily with various doses of either statin. After 1 month, levels of cerebral soluble and fibrillar Abeta peptides, soluble sAPPalpha, and inflammatory cytokines were measured. Both statins caused dose-dependent reductions in total Abeta peptides with parallel increases in total sAPPalpha. At all doses, slightly greater effects were observed with lovastatin than with pravastatin. In contrast, only lovastatin significantly increased levels of IL-1beta and of TNFalpha in a dose-dependent manner. Lovastatin, but not pravastatin, decreased succinic dehydrogenase and increased lactate dehydrogenase activities in skeletal muscle and increased TUNEL staining in liver. Our data demonstrate that both statins shift the balance of APP processing from excessive beta-toward the normal alpha-cleavage while reducing the total amyloid burden in TgCRND8 brain and that lovastatin, but not pravastatin, potentiates cerebral inflammation and is associated with liver and muscle histotoxicity in these animals. These data show that pravastatin can reduce amyloid burden without potentiating inflammatory responses in brain and, therefore, may have a wider dose-range of safety than have lipophilic statins in the treatment or prevention of AD.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use
  • Brain / drug effects*
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Brain Chemistry / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Humans
  • Lovastatin / pharmacology*
  • Lovastatin / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C3H
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Pravastatin / pharmacology*
  • Pravastatin / therapeutic use
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational


  • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Cytokines
  • Lovastatin
  • Pravastatin