This prospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Kashmiri women and to assess the effect of various demographic factors. Two thousand pregnant women (divided into groups A and B, being the first and last 1000 consecutive women) attending various antenatal clinics in six districts of Kashmir valley were screened for GDM by 1 h 50 g oral glucose challenge test. Four hundred and fourteen (20.8%) women (216 from group A and 198 from group B) had an abnormal screening test and proceeded to oral glucose tolerance testing. Women from group A had a 3 h 100 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and GDM was as classified by Carpenter and Coustan. A 2 h 75 g OGTT was performed on group B subjects and WHO criteria applied for diagnosis of GDM. The overall prevalence of GDM was 3.8% (3.1% in group A versus 4.4% in group B-P-value 0.071). GDM prevalence steadily increased with age (from 1.7% in women below 25 years to 18% in women 35 years or older). GDM occurred more frequently in women who were residing in urban areas, had borne three or more children, had history of abortion(s) or GDM during previous pregnancies, had given birth to a macrosomic baby, or had a family history of diabetes mellitus. Women with obesity, hypertension, osmotic symptoms, proteinuria or hydramnios had a higher prevalence of GDM.