Genes of glycolysis are ubiquitously overexpressed in 24 cancer classes

Genomics. 2004 Dec;84(6):1014-20. doi: 10.1016/j.ygeno.2004.08.010.


Using NIH's public database dbEST for expression of genes and ESTs, genes of the glycolysis pathway have been found to be overexpressed in a set of 24 cancers representing more than 70% of human cancer cases worldwide. Genes can be classified as those that are almost ubiquitously overexpressed, particularly glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase 1, and also pyruvate kinase, and those that are overexpressed in less than 50% of the investigated cancers. Cancers can be classified as those with overexpression of the majority of the glycolysis genes, particularly lymph node, prostate, and brain cancer, in which essentially all glycolysis genes are overexpressed, and those with only sporadic overexpression, particularly cancers of the cartilage or bone marrow. This classification may be useful when cancer therapies aimed at the Warburg effect are designed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Databases, Genetic
  • Expressed Sequence Tags
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases / metabolism
  • Glycolysis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms* / classification
  • Neoplasms* / genetics
  • Neoplasms* / metabolism
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism
  • Pyruvate Kinase / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Up-Regulation*


  • Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenases
  • Pyruvate Kinase
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase