Kinetics of nucleotide incorporation opposite DNA bulky guanine N2 adducts by processive bacteriophage T7 DNA polymerase (exonuclease-) and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

J Biol Chem. 2005 Jan 14;280(2):1165-78. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M405996200. Epub 2004 Nov 8.


Six oligonucleotides with carcinogen derivatives bound at the N2 atom of deoxyguanosine were prepared, including adducts derived from butadiene, acrolein, crotonaldehyde, and styrene, and examined for effects on the replicative enzymes bacteriophage DNA polymerase T7- (T7-) and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase for comparison with previous work on smaller DNA adducts. All of these adducts strongly blocked dCTP incorporation opposite the adducts. dATP was preferentially incorporated opposite the acrolein and crotonaldehyde adducts, and dTTP incorporation was preferred at the butadiene- and styrene-derived adducts. Steady-state kinetic analysis indicated that the reduced catalytic efficiency with adducted DNA involved both an increased Km and attenuated kcat. Fluorescence estimates of Kd and pre-steady-state kinetic measurements of koff showed no significantly decreased affinity of T7- with the adducted oligonucleotides or the dNTP. Pre-steady-state kinetics showed no burst phase kinetics for dNTP incorporation with any of the modified oligonucleotides. These results indicate that phosphodiester bond formation or a conformational change of the enzyme.DNA complex is rate-limiting instead of the step involving release of the oligonucleotide. Thio elemental effects for dNTP incorporation were generally relatively small but variable, indicating that the presence of adducts may sometimes make phosphodiester bond formation rate-limiting but not always.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bacteriophage T7 / enzymology*
  • Base Sequence
  • Biopolymers / chemistry
  • Biopolymers / metabolism
  • DNA Adducts / chemistry*
  • DNA Adducts / metabolism*
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase / metabolism*
  • Guanine / chemistry
  • Guanine / metabolism*
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase / metabolism*
  • HIV-1 / enzymology
  • Kinetics
  • Nucleotides / chemistry
  • Nucleotides / metabolism*
  • Phosphates / metabolism
  • Styrene / metabolism
  • Templates, Genetic
  • Thermodynamics


  • 3'-S-phosphorothiolate
  • Biopolymers
  • DNA Adducts
  • Nucleotides
  • Phosphates
  • Styrene
  • Guanine
  • bacteriophage T7 induced DNA polymerase
  • HIV Reverse Transcriptase
  • DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase