Despite aggressive treatment, the median survival of patients with high-grade malignant astrocytoma is about 1 year. The authors investigated the safety and clinical response to immunotherapy using fusions of dendritic and glioma cells combined with recombinant human interleukin 12 (rhIL-12) for the treatment of malignant glioma. Fifteen patients with malignant glioma participated in this study. Dendritic cells were generated from peripheral blood. Cultured autologous glioma cells were established from surgical specimens in each case. Fusion cells were prepared from dendritic and glioma cells using polyethylene glycol. All patients received fusion cells intradermally on day 1. rhIL-12 was injected subcutaneously at the same site on days 3 and 7. Response to the treatment was evaluated by clinical observations and radiologic findings. No serious adverse effects were observed. In four patients, magnetic resonance imaging showed a greater than 50% reduction in tumor size. One patient had a mixed response. These results show that administration of fusion cells and rhIL-12 safely induces clinical antitumor effects in some patients with malignant glioma.