Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is an important costimultory receptor expressed on activated T cells. CTLA-4 blockade using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) in conjunction with tumor vaccines has improved tumor responses in animal models and enhanced numerous models of T cell-associated autoimmune diseases. Two patients with stage IV metastatic melanoma vaccinated with the gp 100 melanocyte/melanoma differentiation antigen either before or during anti-CTLA-4 mAb therapy developed uveitis. This is the first report of autoimmune disease involving the eye in patients treated with anti-CTLA-4 mAb. This suggests that CTLA-4 is an important regulatory molecule for maintenance of tolerance to melanosomal antigens and prevention of uveitis.