The main aspects of the sites characterized by environmental exposure to mineral asbestiform fibres are described. Several adverse health effects including high incidence of pleural mesothelioma are reported. The average concentration of airborne fibres is generally low but it rises significantly in association with mechanical disturb of materials with fibres. Multiple sources of exposure have been identified, fibres can be found in the soil and in many materials locally used, mainly in buildings. Three mesothelioma cases were observed in a small rural area of the Basilicata region (Italy). Two of them had a possible occupational exposure to asbestos, the third had a proved environmental exposure to tremolite. This fibre, found in the area, is the same observed in two of the three biological samples analysed.