Late relapse/sustained abstinence among former smokers: a longitudinal study

Prev Med. 2004 Dec;39(6):1156-63. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.04.028.


Background: Relapse remains the most refractory aspect of nicotine dependence, but little is known about relapse that occurs after a period of prolonged abstinence (i.e., "late relapse").

Method: The current study examined the prevalence and predictors of late relapse/sustained abstinence in a community-based, longitudinal cohort of former smokers surveyed at baseline and again 4 years later (n = 1143).

Results: Late relapse rates declined precipitously and sustained abstinence increased as the duration of abstinence at baseline increased. Although the risk for late relapse appeared to be small when using a point prevalence definition of smoking, that risk increased substantially if fluctuations in smoking behavior over time were considered (i.e., many former smokers relapsed and then regained abstinence during the 4-year study period). Although there were a number of significant prospective predictors of late relapse/sustained abstinence, they did not retain their predictive ability after controlling for baseline duration of abstinence.

Conclusion: Although late relapse rates in the general population of former smokers appear low, and particularly so for individuals who have been abstinent for long periods of time, fluctuations between abstinence and smoking over time are not uncommon. How these fluctuations influence health or sustained abstinence over time is unclear. Because late relapse rates are generally low, interventions are likely to require careful targeting of at-risk individuals if they are to be efficacious and cost-effective.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking Cessation / economics
  • Smoking Cessation / statistics & numerical data*
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Time Factors