Delayed graft function is a form of acute renal failure resulting in post-transplantation oliguria, increased allograft immunogenicity and risk of acute rejection episodes, and decreased long-term survival. Factors related to the donor and prerenal, renal, or postrenal transplant factors related to the recipient can contribute to this condition. From experimental studies, we have learnt that both ischaemia and reinstitution of blood flow in ischaemically damaged kidneys after hypothermic preservation activate a complex sequence of events that sustain renal injury and play a pivotal part in the development of delayed graft function. Elucidation of the pathophysiology of renal ischaemia and reperfusion injury has contributed to the development of strategies to decrease the rate of delayed graft function, focusing on donor management, organ procurement and preservation techniques, recipient fluid management, and pharmacological agents (vasodilators, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents). Several new drugs show promise in animal studies in preventing or ameliorating ischaemia-reperfusion injury and possibly delayed graft function, but definitive clinical trials are lacking. The goal of monotherapy for the prevention or treatment of is perhaps unattainable, and multidrug approaches or single drug targeting multiple signals will be the next step to reduce post-transplantation injury and delayed graft function.