Divide et Impera--the midbrain-hindbrain boundary and its organizer

Trends Neurosci. 2004 Dec;27(12):727-34. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2004.10.003.


The midbrain-hindbrain organizer (MHO) is a signalling centre that orchestrates development of the mesencephalic and anterior metencephalic primordia. In recent years, details have been revealed about the molecular nature of these signals, their transmission and reception, and the regulatory processes associated with MHO function. This article reviews recent progress in understanding the genetic and molecular components of the MHO, and how they synergize to control brain development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Evolution
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Growth Substances / metabolism
  • Mesencephalon* / anatomy & histology
  • Mesencephalon* / embryology
  • Mesencephalon* / physiology
  • Morphogenesis
  • Neurons / physiology
  • Organizers, Embryonic*
  • Rhombencephalon* / anatomy & histology
  • Rhombencephalon* / embryology
  • Rhombencephalon* / physiology
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • Growth Substances