Mutations Within the Programmed Cell Death 10 Gene Cause Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

Am J Hum Genet. 2005 Jan;76(1):42-51. doi: 10.1086/426952. Epub 2004 Nov 12.

Abstract

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are hamartomatous vascular malformations characterized by abnormally enlarged capillary cavities without intervening brain parenchyma. They cause seizures and cerebral hemorrhages, which can result in focal neurological deficits. Three CCM loci have been mapped, and loss-of-function mutations were identified in the KRIT1 (CCM1) and MGC4607 (CCM2) genes. We report herein the identification of PDCD10 (programmed cell death 10) as the CCM3 gene. The CCM3 locus has been previously mapped to 3q26-27 within a 22-cM interval that is bracketed by D3S1763 and D3S1262. We hypothesized that genomic deletions might occur at the CCM3 locus, as reported previously to occur at the CCM2 locus. Through high-density microsatellite genotyping of 20 families, we identified, in one family, null alleles that resulted from a deletion within a 4-Mb interval flanked by markers D3S3668 and D3S1614. This de novo deletion encompassed D3S1763, which strongly suggests that the CCM3 gene lies within a 970-kb region bracketed by D3S1763 and D3S1614. Six additional distinct deleterious mutations within PDCD10, one of the five known genes mapped within this interval, were identified in seven families. Three of these mutations were nonsense mutations, and two led to an aberrant splicing of exon 9, with a frameshift and a longer open reading frame within exon 10. The last of the six mutations led to an aberrant splicing of exon 5, without frameshift. Three of these mutations occurred de novo. All of them cosegregated with the disease in the families and were not observed in 200 control chromosomes. PDCD10, also called "TFAR15," had been initially identified through a screening for genes differentially expressed during the induction of apoptosis in the TF-1 premyeloid cell line. It is highly conserved in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Its implication in cerebral cavernous malformations strongly suggests that it is a new player in vascular morphogenesis and/or remodeling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Female
  • Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Mutation
  • Pedigree
  • Point Mutation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics

Substances

  • Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
  • Membrane Proteins
  • PDCD10 protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins