Protection capacity against low-density lipoprotein oxidation and antioxidant potential of some organic and non-organic wines

Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2004 Aug;55(5):351-62. doi: 10.1080/09637480412331319781.


Current research suggests that phenolics from wine may play a positive role against oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Considering the effects of different wine-making techniques on phenols and the wine consumption preference influencing the benefical effects of the product, organically and non-organically produced wines were obtained from the grapes of Vitis vinifera origin var: Carignan, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Grenache, Columbard and Semillon. Levels of total phenols [mg/l gallic acid equivalents (GAE)], antioxidant activity (%) and inhibition of LDL oxidation [%, inhibition of diene and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation] were determined. Some phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and vanillic acid) were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with an electrochemical detection carried at +0.65 V (versus Ag/AgCl, 0.5 microA full scale). The highest concentrations of gallic, syringic and ferulic acids were found in organic Cabernet Sauvignon; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid in organic Carignan and p-coumaric and vanillic acids in non-organic Merlot wine. High levels of antioxidant activity (AOA), inhibition of LDL oxidation and total phenol levels were found in non-organic Merlot (101.950% AOA; 88.570% LDL-diene; 41.000% LDL-MDA; 4700.000 mg/l GAE total phenol) and non-organic Cabernet Sauvignon (92.420% AOA; 91.430% LDL-diene; 67.000% LDL-MDA; 3500.000 mg/l GAE total phenol) grape varieties. Concentrations of some individual phenolic constituents (ferulic, p-coumaric, vanillic) are correlated with high antioxidant activity and inhibition of LDL oxidation. The best r value for all examined characteristics was determined for gallic acid, followed by 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic, syringic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids. Negative correlation of vanillic with MDA and p-hydroxybenzoic acid with LDL were confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA) analyses. Red wines display a higher antioxidant activity (81.110% AOA) than white ones (19.512% AOA). The average level of LDL inhibition capacity in red wine was determined as 87.072% and for the white as 54.867%.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Food Handling / methods
  • Food, Organic / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxybenzoates / analysis
  • Lipoproteins, LDL / metabolism*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Antioxidants
  • Hydroxybenzoates
  • Lipoproteins, LDL
  • Phenols
  • phenolic acid