Psychological mindedness and awareness of self and others

J Clin Psychol. 2005 Jun;61(6):739-50. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20095.


The major goal of this study was to explore the relationship among psychological mindedness (PM) and several facets of awareness, including a general sense of mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale; Brown & Ryan, 2003), as well as more specific awareness of self (self-consciousness scale; Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975) and others (Interpersonal Reactivity Index; Davis, 1980). Participants were 103 undergraduate students at an urban liberal arts college. Results indicated that PM (PM Scale; Conte, Plutchik, Jung, Picard, Karasu, & Lotterman, 1990) is related to mindfulness (r = .41, p < .01), private self-consciousness (r = .27, p < .05), as well as cognitive (r = .30, p < .01) and affective (r = .35, p < .01) indices of empathy. Self-consciousness and empathy explained a significant amount of variance in PM in a simultaneous-entry multiple regression. These findings support theoretical claims that PM involves awareness of self and others.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Awareness*
  • Empathy
  • Empirical Research
  • Extraversion, Psychological*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • New York
  • Psychometrics