The classical view of B cells in the biology of autoimmune responses to infectious and self-antigens (Ag) that they promote immunity primarily by producing antibodies (Ab) is far from being complete. Indeed, studies over the last decade suggest that B cells have extraordinarily diverse functions within the immune system other than Ab production, which could contribute to autoimmunity. They normally play a role in the development of lymphoid architecture, regulating dentritic cells (DC) and T cell subsets function through cytokine production, and in activation of T cells. Receptor editing is also important in B cells which aids in immunity to infection and, possibly, prevention of autoimmunity. Both abnormalities in the distribution of B cells subsets and clinical benefit response to B cell depletion in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), highlight their pivotal function. Transgenic (Tg) animal models have shown that sensitivity of B cells to B cell Ag receptor (BCR) cross-linking is correlated to autoimmunity. Indeed, negative signaling by CD5 and other molecules, such as CD22, in maintaining tolerance through recruitment of src-homology two domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1) has also been documented. In fact, we have now reached a newer area whereby B cells returned as an important contributor to autoimmune disorders.