Inositol hexaphosphate inhibits growth and induces G1 arrest and apoptotic death of androgen-dependent human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells

Neoplasia. 2004 Sep-Oct;6(5):646-59. doi: 10.1593/neo.04232.


Prostate cancer (PCA) is the most common invasive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US male population. One approach to control this malignancy is its preventive intervention by dietary agents. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a dietary constituent, has shown promising efficacy against various cancers; however, limited studies have been performed with IP6 against PCA. Here, we investigated the growth-inhibitory effect and associated mechanisms of IP6 in androgen-dependent human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. IP6 treatment of cells resulted in a strong growth inhibition and an increase in G1 cell population. In mechanistic studies, IP6 resulted in an increase in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) Cip1/p21 and Kip1/p27 levels, together with a decrease in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and cyclin D1 protein levels. An increase in CDKI levels by IP6 also led to a concomitant increase in their interactions with CDK2 and CDK4, together with a strong decrease in the kinase activity of both CDKs. Downstream in CDKI-CDK-cyclin cascade, consistent with its inhibitory effect on CDK kinase activity, IP6 treatment of cells increased hypophosphorylated levels of retinoblastoma (Rb) with a decrease in Rb phosphorylation at serine 780, 807, and 811 sites, and caused a moderate to strong decrease in the levels of transcription factors E2F1, E2F4, and E2F5. In other studies, IP6 caused a dose- and a time-dependent apoptotic death of LNCaP cells, and a decrease in Bcl2 levels, causing a strong increase in Bax versus Bcl2 ratio, as well as an inhibition of constitutively active AKT phosphorylation. Taken together, these molecular alterations provide an insight into IP6-caused growth inhibition, G1 arrest, and apoptotic death of human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells. Because early clinical PCA growth is an androgen-dependent response, the results of the present study employing androgen-dependent LNCaP cells suggest that IP6 has promise and potential to be effective against PCA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Androgens / physiology*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Apoptosis*
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase / metabolism
  • CDC2-CDC28 Kinases / metabolism
  • Carcinoma / drug therapy*
  • Carcinoma / metabolism
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases / metabolism
  • G1 Phase / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation / drug effects
  • Phytic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Phytic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism


  • Androgens
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Retinoblastoma Protein
  • Phytic Acid
  • AKT1 protein, human
  • Protein Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • CDC2 Protein Kinase
  • CDC2-CDC28 Kinases
  • CDK2 protein, human
  • CDK4 protein, human
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
  • Cyclin-Dependent Kinases