Risk factors and obstetric complications associated with macrosomia

Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004 Dec;87(3):220-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2004.08.010.


Objective: Macrosomia is associated with adverse maternal outcomes. The objective of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of macrosomia and related maternal complications.

Method: Live births (146,526) were identified between 1995 and 1999 in the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program's Northern California Region (KPMCP NCR) database. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed for risk factors and complications associated with macrosomia (birth weight >4500 g).

Result: Male infant sex, multiparity, maternal age 30-40, white race, diabetes, and gestational age >41 weeks were associated with macrosomia (p<0.001). In bivariate and multivariate analyses, macrosomia was associated with higher rates of cesarean birth, chorioamnionitis, shoulder dystocia, fourth-degree perineal lacerations, postpartum hemorrhage, and prolonged hospital stay (p<0.01).

Conclusion: Macrosomia was associated with adverse maternal outcomes in this cohort. More research is needed to determine how to prevent complications related to excessive birth weight.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Cesarean Section / statistics & numerical data
  • Chorioamnionitis / etiology
  • Cohort Studies
  • Databases as Topic
  • Dystocia / etiology
  • Female
  • Fetal Macrosomia / complications*
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Lacerations / etiology
  • Length of Stay
  • Maternal Age
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Parity
  • Perineum / injuries
  • Postpartum Hemorrhage / etiology
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy in Diabetics / complications
  • Puerperal Infection / etiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Shoulder Injuries
  • White People