CpG island hypermethylation may be one of the earliest somatic genome alterations to occur during the development of multiple cancers. Recently, aberrant methylation patterns for different tumors have been reported. We present a comprehensive review of the literature describing the role of CpG island hypermethylation of DNA from prostatic tissue and bodily fluids from men with prostate cancer. We reviewed the literature to evaluate CpG island hypermethylation in tissue and bodily fluids of men with primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Additionally, we reviewed the literature with respect to CpG island hypermethylation patterns in other urological malignancies. Using modern analytic methods, CpG island hypermethylation detection can be achieved. In men with prostate cancer, correlations between specific gene regulatory region hypermethylation analyses and Gleason score, pathologic stage and tumor recurrence have been demonstrated. CpG island hypermethylation may serve as a useful molecular biomarker for the detection and diagnosis of patients with prostate cancer.