SMASH, SENSE, PILS, GRAPPA: how to choose the optimal method

Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2004 Aug;15(4):223-36. doi: 10.1097/01.rmr.0000136558.09801.dd.


Fast imaging methods and the availability of required hardware for magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) have significantly reduced acquisition times from about an hour down to several minutes or seconds. With this development over the last 20 years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most important instruments in clinical diagnosis. In recent years, the greatest progress in further increasing imaging speed has been the development of parallel MRI (pMRI). Within the last 3 years, parallel imaging methods have become commercially available, and therefore are now available for a broad clinical use. The basic feature of pMRI is a scan time reduction, applicable to nearly any available MRI method, while maintaining the contrast behavior without requiring higher gradient system performance. Because of its faster image acquisition, pMRI can in some cases even significantly improve image quality. In the last 10 years of pMRI development, several different pMRI reconstruction methods have been set up which partially differ in their philosophy, in the mode of reconstruction as well in their advantages and drawbacks with regard to a successful image reconstruction. In this review, a brief overview is given on the advantages and disadvantages of present pMRI methods in clinical applications, and examples from different daily clinical applications are shown.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Artifacts
  • Calibration
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity