Redox reactions pervade living cells. They are central to both anabolic and catabolic metabolism. The ability to maintain redox balance is therefore vital to all organisms. Various regulatory sensors continually monitor the redox state of the internal and external environments and control the processes that work to maintain redox homeostasis. In response to redox imbalance, new metabolic pathways are initiated, the repair or bypassing of damaged cellular components is coordinated and systems that protect the cell from further damage are induced. Advances in biochemical analyses are revealing a range of elegant solutions that have evolved to allow bacteria to sense different redox signals.