The genus Fonsecaea is revised on the basis of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence data. Two species are recognized, F. pedrosoi and the new defined F. monophora. The distinction between these species does not correspond with the classical distinction of F. pedrosoi and F. compacta. The latter appears to be no more than a morphological variant. Both species recognized in this study are agents of human chromoblastomycosis; however, in F. pedrosoi a strict association with this disease is noted, while F. monophora is a more general opportunist. Subspecific randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing revealed a high degree of strain diversity, although clonal reproduction is also likely to occur. Most strains with Fonsecaea-like morphology isolated from environments to which symptomatic human patients were exposed were found to be more closely related to species of Cladophialophora than to Fonsecaea.