We examined whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prevents cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) in large animals. MI was produced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery in swine. G-CSF (10 microg/kg/day, once a day) was injected subcutaneously from 24h after ligation for 7 days. Echocardiographic examination revealed that the G-CSF treatment induced improvement of cardiac function and attenuation of cardiac remodeling at 4 weeks after MI. In the ischemic region, the number of apoptotic endothelial cells was smaller and the number of vessels was larger in the G-CSF treatment group than in control group. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor was more abundantly expressed and Akt was more strongly activated in the ischemic region of the G-CSF treatment group than of control group. These findings suggest that G-CSF prevents cardiac dysfunction and remodeling after MI in large animals.