Fractionation of the extract of Aspergillus niger. IFB-E003, an endophyte in Cyndon dactylon, gave four known compounds naphtho-gamma-pyrones rubrofusarin B, fonsecinone A, asperpyrone B and aurasperone A, which were further investigated biologically. Rubrofusarin B was shown to be cytotoxic to the colon cancer cell line SW1116 (IC50: 4.5 microgml-1), and aurasperone A inhibitory on XO (xanthine oxidase) (IC50: 10.9 micromoll-1). Moreover, the four naphtho-gamma-pyrones exhibited growth inhibitions against the five test microbes with MICs ranging in between 1.9 and 31.2 microgml(-1). The present recognition of rubrofusarin B and aurasperone A as strong co-inhibitors on XO, colon cancer cell and some microbial pathogens is of significance for the imperative discovery of new relevant therapeutic agents.